THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD,
TESTING THE HYPOTHESES
by Douglas Roger Dexheimer
(Author’s note: By way of review, you may wish to refer to the two previous issues of this publication, which feature articles on the imminent lunar tetrad, defined as four successive total lunar eclipses, with no intervening partial lunar eclipses.)
THE FIRST PASSOVER IN EGYPT
Your author has been interested in astronomy since grammar school. For many years I’ve been utilizing several astronomical programs on my home computer. One of the best I’ve found is "Dance of the Planets." With it, it is possible to show the night sky from any position on earth, at any moment -- past, present, or future.
Many years ago, I experienced several “close encounters” with Mr. Gene Faulstich, author of a fascinating book, Bible Chronology and the Scientific Method. I had met him at the home of Jim Jefferson and his wife Mary, who, at the time, had expressed to Mr. Faustlich a desire to query him regarding the chronology of the Egyptian dynasties. Following that meeting, I kept in touch with him regarding my own questions and observations on biblical chronology. About 15 years ago I invited him to my home to view a number of my computer-generated displays of historical night skies. One of those was the night sky of the very first Passover.
In my preparation for creating this article, I dug up my copy of Faulstich’s book. I found tucked away in it some notes I’d made at our first meeting! They were sitting at the very page where he makes the following statement:
The child Amenemhet was probably the firstborn of Amenhotep II. If so, then he may have died on the evening of Passover, Abib 15, 1461 B.C.1
I believe Faulstich arrived at this date using cross-references to astronomical observations made in ancient times by the Chinese, Egyptians, Babylonians, etc. He cross-linked and correlated the calendars of those cultures with selected special events in scripture, incorporating his findings with those of modern astronomy.
However, on review of NASA’s catalog of lunar eclipses, I see that the date of 1461 B.C. does not agree with a likely Passover or Sukkot date, since the Feasts of the LORD are in spring and fall, not January and July.
I suggest instead, the total lunar eclipse of April 6th, 1465 B.C. on Passover, and the eclipse of September 29th of 1465 B.C. on Sukkot.
According to the NASA Catalog of Lunar Eclipses, there were two total lunar eclipses, in 1465 B.C. but the next year, 1464, the lunar eclipses were partial, not total, so this does not qualify as a Lunar Tetrad.2
When I searched the web for the date of the original Passover in Egypt, I found an answer that was supposedly derived from a reference in I Kings:
And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord (I Kings 6:1, KJV).
Knowing this, it is possible to backtrack and calculate that the first Passover “began on the first month of the Jewish calendar, April 14, 1441 B.C."3 (I found additional references verifying that date.4)
However, according to NASA, the date of April 14, 1441 B.C. did not coincide with a lunar eclipse:5
An alternative chronology of biblical events places the Exodus at 1510 BC.6 There are no lunar eclipses in that year that fit the Feast-Day schedule. The closest tetrad to 1510 occurred in the years 1513 B.C. and 1512 B.C.
I would conclude that the date of April 6, 1465 B.C., determined by Faulstich based on celestial calculations and concurrent chronologies, was likely the original Passover, but April 14, 1441 was neither a lunar eclipse nor a blood moon.
BACK TO THE PRESENT AND FUTURE
The "blood moon coincident with Jewish Feast days" concept was originally posed by Pastor Mark Biltz,7 and has been picked up by other Christian leaders, particularly Rev. John Hagge.8 These men emphasize the coincident events in Jewish history in the earlier blood moons, and extrapolate the concept to conclude that there may be a major event, or turning point in the history of the nation of Israel. Both emphasize that they did not “invent” the concepts of lunar tetrads or blood moons; rather, their dates have been published by NASA for many years.
Creationist-astronomer Dr. Danny Faulkner has written an article commenting on the lunar tetrads.9 He makes disclaimers similar to those of Biltz and Hagge but goes on to explain the astronomical geometry that is responsible for eclipses. Because of the tilt of the moon’s orbit relative to earth’s orbit around the sun, the timing of eclipses is not fixed every month, but depends upon the alignment of the orbits. Faulkner asks
from what portion of the earth one ought to view these eclipses for them to constitute a sign. One might think that Jerusalem would be a key site, but the first three total lunar eclipses in 2014–2015 won’t be visible from there, and only the beginning of the final eclipse will be. One must ask whether a sign that few people notice is much of a sign.10
Faulkner concludes his paper with the following observation:
The biblical passages that refer to the dimming of the sun (Matthew 24:29; Joel 2:31) and the moon turning to blood (Joel 2:31) speak in very apocalyptic terms, emphasizing frightening things that men experience. The timing of the eclipses that Biltz draws attention to, while interesting, falls far short of the sort of signs that will cause the heavens to shake (Matthew 24:29).11
A messianic Christian ministry based in Jerusalem has prepared a comprehensive history of past lunar tetrads.12 It spells out the events that coincided with the lunar tetrads in the past. I agree with the presentation, but I do not understand how the Feast of Tabernacles, which is always six lunar months after the Feast of Passover was missing, and replaced with Yom Kippur in the following three events:
Four TOTAL lunar eclipses occurred on the Jewish Passover and Yom Kippur Holidays in 795 - 796 AD while King Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire established a DMZ buffer zone between France and Spain, ending centuries of Arab invasions into Western Europe.
Four TOTAL lunar eclipses occurred on the Jewish Passover and Yom Kippur Holidays in 842 - 843 AD. Shortly after the eclipses the Vatican church in Rome was attacked and looted by an Islamic invasion from Africa.
Four TOTAL lunar eclipses occurred on the Jewish Passover and Yom Kippur Holidays in 860 - 861 AD. Shortly after the eclipses the Byzantine Empire defeated Arab armies at the Battle of Lalakaon in Turkey and permanently stopped the Islamic invasion of Eastern Europe.13
I believe the above narrative is not entirely accurate, however, since it is not possible for a total lunar eclipse to fall on the first of a lunar month -- i.e., a new moon. Lunar eclipses always occur at the time of the 14th of a lunar month -- i.e., a full moon.
An educator at Sonoma State University, Mr. Luis Vega, has put together an astounding series of charts that feature the lunar tetrads. Vega has combined his interests in biblical creation, mathematics, astronomy, and computer graphics into this chart:14
You may recognize the blue spiral from my previous articles and presentations dealing with the Fibonacci Series. The diagram incorporates the divine ratio, or Phi, which is commonly recognized as the golden spiral.15 A golden spiral is a logarithmic spiral whose growth factor is φ, the golden ratio. That is, a golden spiral gets wider (or further from its origin) by a factor of φ for every quarter turn it makes.16 However, when I tried to construct the spiral using the numbers on the chart, I could not make the dates of the blood moons fit the divine or golden spiral that is shown. The ratios of the successive arcs are not close to Φ (value 1.6180...) as they should be for a proper golden spiral.
Furthermore, the numbers of years between events do not coincide with the numbers in the Fibonacci series. Recall that the Fibonacci numbers are, by definition, F(n) = F(n-1)+F(n-2). That is, each term is the sum of the previous two terms: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, etc. The 13th through 17th terms are 233, 377, 610, 987, and 1597.
As you can see, the numbers 455 and 678 do NOT occur in that series. Rather, 455 is between the 14th and 15th, and 678 is between the 15th and 16th number of the series.
I would conclude that the series of lunar tetrads or blood moons does not correlate with the concept of the golden spiral. While I appreciate Vega's efforts to show this relationship, it would appear to be nonexistent. Nevertheless this critique does not affect the significance of the upcoming events.
Finally, I would be remiss if I were to fail to remind you once again to mark your calendars and set your alarm clocks for April 15th, just before 2:00 A.M., when a spectacular lunar eclipse will begin. It will be widely visible from all of North America. This is actually the first of two such events this year, the second one occurring in October, giving you two opportunities to experience this heavenly sight, should one or the other happen to be obscured by clouds! For more details, go to the following website:
1, E.W. Faulstich, Biblical Chronology and the Scientific Method, The Old Testament with Secular Synchronisms, p. 37.
4 http://www.biblemaster.com/studies/study.asp?study_id=1614 & http://www.theopedia.com/Date_of_the_Exodus